Essay: Cut the CAP

Tanglewest Douglas, an undergraduate ecology student at Lancaster University, reflects on a film showing organised by the Lancaster University node and the Landworkers’ Alliance, and what both the film and the debate that followed tell us about current questions around the future of food and farming.

Cut the CAP

The Lancaster POLLEN node recently organised a viewing of ‘In Our Hands: Seeding Change’, a film about small scale farms and land working operations in the UK, and the challenges they face in their establishment and running. Many of these seem obvious, though they often go unstated or unconsidered. But, once they had been highlighted at a recent film showing, the possible causes and solutions sparked much debate amongst the audience members as we will discuss. This was particularly evident during a following Skype interview with a representative member of a land worker’s union: The Landworker’s Alliance (the LWA). The LWA is a union that was not only involved in the production of the film, but also took the starring role, as they provided the small farmers, belonging to the Alliance, that were the subjects.

The key point in the narrative of the film was that it can be very hard for these often organic, unindustrialized farms to turn a profit. This may be due to competition with supermarkets, providing cheap, readily available food; difficulty moving produce; or simply due to a limited season of production. Though these farms are often incredibly productive relative to their land area, getting the capital necessary to employ farm workers, buy machinery and even maintain infrastructure can be very challenging. Many smaller farms rely on the help of volunteers, keen to gain experience or even just hoping for a temporary escape from the drudgery of a 9 to 5 life by working the land (LWA, 2017).

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Figure 1 A promotional image used for the film ‘In Our Hands’ depicting a farmer associated with the project ‘Grown in Totnes’ in a field of wheat.

The European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) also contributes significantly to these problems. It is designed to reward beneficiaries merely for owning land that is used for agriculture, but many of the smaller farms are disadvantaged by this, as they don’t have enough land to qualify for the Basic Payment Scheme (BPS). The BSP is the system through which a large majority of the money available as subsidies is paid out. A farm needs to consist of at least 5 hectares of land to qualify for CAP payments and due to the nature of the LWA many of their members’ farms do not meet this requirement (Rural Payments Agency, 2018). Some farms of the LWA even consist of less than one hectare of land, though these are the smallest of small farms. While small hold farmers may be eligible for other funding through the rural development scheme (RDS), this receives a much smaller proportion of the EU budget and a wider range of rural businesses and projects, including tourism projects, for funding through the RDS (Rural Payments Agency, 2017). At the same time, the focus of subsidies is changing, moving more towards reducing environmental degradation on agricultural land. ‘Green payments’ have been introduced to incentivise farmers to improve the quality of their land through their agricultural practices, and farmers can now fail to qualify for CAP payments if they do not meet certain standards of animal welfare and low environmental impact. Though these are criteria in which small farms often excel, still the farmers of these small plots are not often rewarded by the government for their beneficial impact on the land they occupy.

Despite most of the food in the world being produced on small farms and for local communities, this is not how most food is supplied in the UK (FAO, 2017). Half of our food is sourced internationally, as the UK lacks the climate to grow the fruits and vegetables we consume daily, other than potatoes – though we do grow an abundance of potatoes grown on very large farms. Meanwhile, we also import considerable amounts of other agricultural products, for example, the 3 million tons a year of soy we use for feeding livestock (DEFRA, 2017). This leads to very high carbon emissions from transport, and to food being sourced from huge industrial farms from around the world. But even within the UK, agriculture is dominated by a system of fewer larger farms, rather than many small ones. Due to the inherent size of small farms, they often receive no subsidies at all. Because of this lack of governmental support, and as it is dished out to the larger industrial farms, many farmers must also work outside of their farms to supplement their income with other work. They often earn more than 50% of their income this way, to be able to financially maintain their farms and lifestyles (LWA, 2017).

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Figure 2 A chart showing the agricultural produce imported to and exported from the UK in 2017. (DEFRA, 2017)

There are numerous obvious problems with the industrialized, monoculture farms that dominate the food markets of the UK, such as:

  • The food security risks that stem from the lack of genetic diversity on monoculture farms.
  • Considerable soil degradation from the use of heavy machinery and choice of crops
  • The misuse of fertilizers causing hyper-eutrophication in surrounding systems.
  • The removal of hedgerows and other important bridges and spaces for local wildlife to make way for the farms.
  • The uses of pesticides and herbicides – particularly in relation to GM crops – further damaging local wildlife and creating resistant strains of weed and pest species’.

All of these are raised as serious concerns in much of the publicity that the LWA puts out, and the list could go on. However, we must still face the fact that despite all these seemingly blatant problems, avoided by the small, organic farms that were the subject of the film, huge farms are still the dominant source of food in Western markets.

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Figure 3 A promotional image used for the film ‘In Our Hands’ depicting a lady growing salad for the OrganicLea scheme.

Because the cost of production on small farms is higher, their produce often comes at a premium. This means such farms are very dependent on a local community that is willing to pay more for their food. This dependency could be considered an advantage, as it can help build stronger links with the community that they operate in, but it is also a vulnerability. Though there are examples of food being produced at a competitive price, often this is not a plausible way to make enough money to keep the farm running. If the farm cannot find a niche where it can be competitive in the market, it is likely to fail. Small farms employ many more workers per acre of land than industrialized farms, which are predominantly designed around efficiency, and labour is expensive. To make a profit, the money made from produce must be maximised, and though for small farms this can be done through models such as Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) schemes, most often this is done through selling goods at prices above what you would expect in a supermarket (LWA, 2017).

The money we spend on food has changed dramatically over the past 100 years. The proportion of a household’s weekly budget being spent on food has gone down enormously. While this may reflect increases in rent and the cost of utilities, this change is facilitated by the unethically and consistently low prices of food in supermarkets made possible in many instances by the CAP. Major reforms to the CAP in 2005 were aimed at reducing the overproduction caused by insuring the price of agricultural products for farmers against the market, a problem that also had large ramifications outside of the EU. But the current system still has drawbacks. The BPS could be considered a subsidy for farmers that allows the prices of agricultural products drop, but this price cannot be matched by those who do not receive such funding. As the financial cost of food has gone down, the environmental cost of food has gone up, a change that is greatly implicated in the struggle that these small farmers now face. But, this is not something that we can change overnight.

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Figure 4 A promotional image used for the film ‘In Our Hands’ depicting a dairy farmer bottling milk at the North Aston Dairy.

This brings us to one of the biggest objections levelled at the narrative the film presented of small farms: that their produce is inaccessible for many people. The story of ground-roots operations bringing healthy, green food to the people around them did not resonate with the experiences of many audience members. These farms cater to what was considered to be a very middle class and privileged section of society, people with the money and time to favour what seemed to be viewed as the more moral, but exclusive choice for food. Not only were the prices deemed as exclusionary, but it was suggested that the kind of products that were being displayed in the film, outside of simply fruit and vegetables, were aimed squarely at wealthy, middle-class consumers, for example breads made from heritage wheat grains sold at twice the price of the equivalent bread from Sainsbury’s. The members of the LWA identify as staunchly working class, on the basis that they have manual labour jobs, and they refuted what they seemed to take as an accusation of elitism. In fact, as members of La Via Campesina they identify as a part of the peasantry.

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Figure 5 An example of the products sold by ‘Grown in Totnes’.

This disconnect between how the members of the LWA perceive themselves, and how the audience viewed them, was quite striking. But, no matter the disjunction in perception of class, the point still stands: with a rising dependency for even those who are employed on food banks and food clubs, ever increasing childhood obesity linked to food prices and poverty, and the inaccessibility of food produced on small farms in large cities, their produce cannot be the immediate answer for everyone. While the highest earning households spend approximately 10% of their budget on food, the lowest income households spend 23% of their budget on food meaning that increased food prices will have a disproportionately higher exclusionary effect on the poorest members of society (Levell, 2017).

There are obvious steps that could be taken to start to mitigate and change this situation. Some of the many suggestions by the audience members to end the plight of small farms included changing government regulations to help small businesses, like farms, by providing subsidies without a minimum land requirement, and not encouraging accumulation of land, as well as helping entrants through education in farming and practical skills to make it a more viable lifestyle for workers. Many in the LWA are viewing Brexit as an opportunity to renegotiate these systems of payment. But whether we are capable of this is another question entirely. Our society is built on capitalist principles. These farms operate as businesses and are trying to turn a profit, despite the lack of certain protections. And competition is immense.

It was also suggested that the contention between these small farms and supermarkets, viewing them almost as the opposition, may be one of the reasons that they become so inaccessible to many people. If the farmers in the LWA viewed supermarkets as an opportunity rather than as their adversaries in a highly competitive market and could strike deals to supply supermarkets for a ‘local produce’ section, for example, this could be beneficial for all. Not only could this lead to much greater job security and stability for farmers with less land, or farmers producing seasonally, it could also make prices more competitive and local organic food more accessible for people, particularly in large cities. Some of the operations presented in the film were limited simply by the distance they could drive from their farms, an issue that could easily be overcome working with larger supermarkets. This seems unlikely to happen, however, due to the differences in ethos of the LWA and most supermarket chains.

The absolute nature of the LWA’s opinions was particularly apparent in their attitudes towards GM crops. This is largely irrelevant in Europe, due to the very limited market for GM crops, but some audience members seemed concerned by the statements of the LWA’s representative regarding genetic modification, when she said that they were not used by any members and that the LWA were totally against their use. This opposition was not directed only at the worst case of corporations selling sterile seeds, or at selling them to unprotected farmers at very inflated prices. They seemed opposed to the actual scientific process behind their creation. GM was compared the process of plant breeding, a process that can be considered a slower version of genetic modification, which has of course been used for as long as humans have had agriculture, as an objection to this stance.

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Figure 6 A promotional image for the film ‘In Our Hands’ depicting a farmer Gerald Miles of Caerhys Organic Community Agriculture examining his crop.

Despite there being some questioning of the narrative presented in the film, in general the audience all seemed in favour of more organic and locally grown food. This may have been influenced by the fact that this event was organised by a university Geography department, and so the majority of the audience were students, a notoriously liberal subsection of society. The disadvantages faced by the small farms were acknowledged, and condemnation was levelled at the government, especially the Tories. Eventually the discussion reached its conclusion, as it always seems to do: everyone present agreed ‘Capitalism is bad’, at least in its current form. Unfortunately, no one in the group has yet found a solution.

References:

  • Laughton, R (2017). A Matter of Scale. The Landworker’s Alliance, The Centre for Agroecology, Water and Resilience at Coventry University
  • Rural Payments Agency (2018). Basic Payment Scheme: rules for 2018.
  • Rural Payments Agency (2017). Rural Development Programme for England
  • FAO (2017). The future of food and Agriculture- Trends and Challenges. Rome.
  • DEFRA (2017). Food Statistics in your pocket 2017
  • Levell, P. et al. (2017) The exposure of households’ food spending to tariff changes and exchange rate movements, The Institute for Fiscal Studies.

Day 1 & 2: Oslo to Wageningen

Thoughts on the return Train Tour from POLLEN18 to Wageningen Summer School…

Low Carbon Academic

I have just completed the 2nd stage of my long overland journey around northern Europe, from Oslo in Norway, down to Wageningen in the Netherlands, ready for a PhD summer school. After a brief day of rest, the summer school has started and it’s time to blog the experience.

The journey, I thought, would be a nice simple one, with only two trains on the first day and four on the second day. It did not go to plan.

The first day, I decided to journey to the Oslo Sentralstasjon a couple of hours early. I had to check out of my Airbnb reasonably early anyway, and my train would be leaving at 13:01 for Göteborg. I arrived, bought myself some food, did some last minute souvenir shopping to get rid of my last Norwegian Kroner. I figured it would be worth checking the NSB (Norwegian Railways) website to check…

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Postdoc Opportunity: Nature Net

NATURE NET POSTDOC FELLOWSHIP INFO

The Nature Conservancy is pleased to solicit applications for the NatureNet Science Fellowship, a trans-disciplinary postdoctoral fellowship and research grant program. The NatureNet Science Fellows program bridges academic excellence and conservation practice to create a new generation of climate change leaders who combine the rigor of academic science with real-world application. The outstanding early-career scientists in this 2-year postdoctoral program differ from other postdocs in two major ways:

  1. They have prioritized improving and expanding their research skills— directing their efforts towards problems at the interface of climate, conservation, business, technology, and people; AND
  2. They are committed to their professional development—  participating and applying trainings designed to improve skills in science communication, working-group facilitation, and leadership.

Recognizing that The Nature Conservancy’s conservation mission is best advanced by the contributions of individuals of diverse backgrounds, beliefs and cultures—  NatureNet encourages applicants from all cultures, races, colors, religions, sexes, national or regional origins, ages, disability status, sexual orientations, gender identities, military or veteran status or other status protected by law.

The call for applications features two post-doctoral opportunities. Read the Eligibility and Award Terms carefully to determine the best fit for your research program. For both programs, applicants should identify a project and mentors from the available list: https://naturenetsciencefellows.org/

FULL POSTDOCTORAL FELLOWSHIP

Applicants will work with a Nature Conservancy mentor and a senior scholar (or scholars) from our 2019 Partner Universities- Brown University; Columbia University; Stanford University; Science for Nature and People Partnership, University of California – Los Angeles; University of Minnesota; University of Virginia; or the University of Queensland to develop a research program. The Conservancy expects post-doctoral appointments to start between May and September. Each Fellow will receive a non-negotiable annual salary of $50,000 plus benefits, with the postdoctoral position expected to run for two consecutive years. In addition to the stipend, each Fellow receives an annual travel budget of approximately $5,000 and an annual research fund of approximately $20,000. Second-year renewal of the fellowship is contingent upon satisfactory progress and contribution to the collective program.

RESEARCH GRANT

Applicants and a university mentor from their host institution collaborate with a Nature Conservancy mentor to develop a research application. Each grantee will receive a research stipend of $20,000, with the grant period expected to run for two consecutive years. Second-year renewal of the grant is contingent upon satisfactory progress and contribution to the collective program. The Conservancy will distribute grant funds between May and September. Funds are awarded directly to the grantee’s institution and may be used by the grantee for such purposes as equipment, technical assistance, professional travel, trainee support, or any other activity directly related to the grantees’s research. Salary support is limited to a maximum of three months of the established academic salary (not including IDC).

For more information on the NatureNet Science Fellowship and to apply please visit: https://naturenetsciencefellows.org/

A tale of two associations: institutions and governance of the green economy

Greenmentality

Written by Frances Cleaver and Brock Bersaglio

In Ukwavila Village, situated in Tanzania’s Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor (SAGCOT) and bordering Ruaha National Park, two new organisations have been established in the last few years. One is an Irrigators Cooperative and the other is a Pastoralist Association. In this blog we use brief vignettes of these organisations, derived from initial fieldwork, to think through the relationship between the emergence and functioning of institutions, green economy interventions and the actions of local people.

The Irrigators Cooperative

In 2016, a group of farmers in Ukwavila Village formally registered themselves as an Irrigators Cooperative in line with recent national legislation. Their certificate of registration is proudly displayed on the wall of their office, which is located next door to the village government office. The Village Chairman initiated the idea of the Cooperative and was active in the process of mobilizing people to both form and…

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The political ecology of Cornelius Castoriadis

ENTITLE blog - a collaborative writing project on Political Ecology

By Yavor Tarinski*

Ecology was of great interest for Castoriadis, one of the great philosophers of the 20th century. In his later writings, Castoriadis incorporated ecology into his political project of autonomy, based on direct democracy. For Castoriadis ecology is political because it raises the fundamental question of our purpose in this world and of limiting ourselves in relation to one another and the world we have come to inhabit.

Resultado de imagen de castoriadis Cornelius Castoriadis (1992-1997) . Source: https://reporterre.net/Castoriadis-philosophe-de-l-autonomie-et-precurseur-de-la-decroissance

Ecology played a major role in the thought of Cornelius Castoriadis. Castoriadis viewed ecology in stark contrast from most environmentalists, now and then. Like political ecologists and the readers of this blog, he insisted that nature is not a commodity, and should not be seen as something separated from society. For Castoriadis, nature was integral to his, and anyone’s, political project.

Despite his criticism of the inability of the leading environmental organizations to overcome the…

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Day 1 of 4: Bristol to Oslo

Notes from the Pollen Train Tour – a group of European academics travelling to the POLLEN18 conference by train, sea and bus to try and reduce our environmental impact…

Low Carbon Academic

I am embarking on the longest train journey I have completed to date, and yesterday was the start of it.

I decided to try and get to Oslo to attend a conference about 6 months ago. Unfortunately, because the journey is so long, I would need to stay in three different cities along the way (Brussels and Copenhagen), so I chose to fly. I had my tickets booked, a coach journey from Bristol to London Heathrow and accommodation sorted for my arrival. Suddenly, with an email from some like-minded individuals attending the conference, my plans changed. Colleagues in Brussels and Copenhagen were offering to put people up in their homes if we were taking the train.

After looking at all the available options for the travel, I worked out the cheapest option would be to get a 7-days in 30-days Interrail (Eurail for any American readers) pass. I would need…

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The REDD debate: Some published studies on local impacts of REDD in various countries

Greenmentality

Editor’s note: The below post is a follow up to a recent text published on these pages about REDD and how “Norwegian climate policy affects the poorest”.

Written by Hanne Svarstad and Tor A. Benjaminsen

Based on our published research on REDD in Tanzania (here, here and here), we wrote an opinion piece in Norway’s biggest newspaper Aftenposten (English version here). This has led to a debate with the Norwegian Minister for climate and environment, Ola Elvestuen. In his latest response to us, he claims that our critique of REDD and Norwegian funding of forest conservation as climate mitigation is based on only one case study, and which in addition is not representative.

Below, we provide the links to a few other studies of cases in different parts of the world with similar conclusions when it comes to insufficient compensation for lost access to forest products…

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Postdoc opportunity: Group Water Schemes in Ireland, Trinity College Dublin

12-month post-doctoral research position based in the Geography Department, Trinity College Dublin. This is the second of two post-doctoral research positions connected to this project.
The research project is based in Ireland and looks at Group Water Schemes (rural, community-managed water infrastructures). While Group Water Schemes are often understood as a minor, even residual component of Ireland’s water system, this project approaches them as potentially important sites for re-thinking key questions relating to the state, modernity, infrastructure and the hydro-social cycle (and thus relates to a broad body of infrastructure-related literature coming from political ecology, science and technology studies, and anthropology in recent years).
Post Summary
The EPA-funded research project WISDOM (Group Water Schemes: Community Infrastructure for Sustainable Development) based in the Department of Geography, Trinity College Dublin, is seeking to appoint a Research Fellow (Post-Doctoral Researcher) working in the fields of political ecology and/or science and technology studies, preferably with a research interest in the core themes of water and/or infrastructure. The position is offered for 12 months on a Full-Time basis. The WISDOM project will examine the phenomenon of Group Water Schemes in Ireland within the context of: (1) complex political economic pressures, regulatory demands, and changing environmental conditions; (2) current theoretical debates on the material politics of infrastructures within political ecology, science and technology studies, and anthropology. Group Water Schemes are community-managed water infrastructures that provide drinking water to approximately 7% of the Irish population. While Group Water Schemes are often understood as a minor, even residual component of Ireland’s water system, this project approaches them as potentially important sites for re-thinking key questions relating to the state, modernity, infrastructure and the hydro-social cycle.
The position starts on 1st September and closing date for applications is 22nd June